Oxidative and microbial stability of sea bass fillets containing Padina gymnospora extract stored under frozen conditions / Estabilidade oxidativa e microbiana de filés de robalo contendo extrato de Padina gymnospora armazenados sob congelamento

Antônia Vicentina Nunes Rodrigues, Simone Teles Braga, Franceli Silva, Mariza Alves Ferreira, Carla Fernandes Macedo, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto


This study evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from five species of red and brown algae. The best algae were used to prepare an edible coating for sea bass (Centropomus undecimalis) fillets. The species Padina gymnospora was chosen for the application of the edible coating, as it presents greater efficiency in in vitro tests. The fillets were divided into four groups: SA1% + PG (1% sodium alginate solution + 20 mg mL-1 of Padina gymnospora), SA1% + BHT (1% sodium alginate solution + 100 mg mL-1 of butylated hydroxytoluene), SA1% (control) and uncoated fillets. The SA1% + PG group showed lesser lipid oxidation (0.80 ± 0.08 mg MDA kg-1) than the uncoated group (2.10 ± 0.36 mg MDA kg-1), without statistical difference from the value observed for containing BHT group (0.94 ± 0.07 mg MDA kg-1). At 120 days, the group SA1% + PG reduced the count of psychrotrophic bacteria by 2-log cycles (p < 0.05). The colour of samples from SA1% + PG group was statistically different from that of other groups (p < 0.05), and influenced the acceptability of the coated fillets. The edible coating containing P. gymnospora extract may have potential application for the storage of perishable products such as fish, owing to its ability to reduce microbial load and lipid oxidation.


This study evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from five species of red and brown algae. The best algae were used to prepare an edible coating for sea bass (Centropomus undecimalis) fillets. The species Padina gymn

Full Text:



AGATONOVIC-KUSTRIN, S., MORTON, D.W., RISTIVOJEVIC, P. Assessment of antioxidant activity in victorian marine algal extracts using high performance thin-layer chromatography and multivariate analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, v. 1468, p. 228-235, 2018. doi:org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.09.041

AGREGÁN, R., MUNEKATA, P.E., DOMINGUEZ, R., CARBALLO, J., FRANCO, D., LORENZO, J.M. Proximate composition, phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of the seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Fucus vesiculosus. Effect of addition of the extracts on the oxidative stability of canola oil under accelerated storage conditions. Food Research International, v. 99, n. 3, p. 986-994. 2017. doi:org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.11.009

AL-SAIF, S.S.A., ABDEL-RAOUF, N., EL-WAZANANI, H.A., AREF, I.A. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of red sea, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, v. 21, n. 1, p. 57-64, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.06.001

ALSAGGAF, M.S., MOUSSA, S.H., TAYEL, A.A. Application of fungal chitosan incorporated with pomegranate peel extract as edible coating for microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality enhancement of Nile tilapia fillets. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 99, p. 499-505, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.017

AMBARDEKAR, A. Effects of edible coatings on the moisture content and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during three months of frozen storage. Asian Fisheries Science, v. 20, p. 395-407, 2007.

ATITALLAH, A.B., BARKALLAH, M., HENTATI, F., DAMMAK, M., HLIMA, H.B., FENDRI, I., ATTIA, H., MICHAUD, P., ABDELKAFI, S. Physicochemical, textural, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of microalgae-fortified canned fish burgers prepared from minced flesh of common barbel (Barbus barbus). Food Bioscience, v. 30, p. 100417, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2019.100417

BALIANO, A.P., PIMENTEL, E.F., BUZIN, A.R., VIEIRA, T.Z., ROMÃO, W., TOSE L.V., LENZA, D., ANDRADEA, T.U., FRONZA, M., KONDRATYUKD, T.P., ENDRINGER, D.C. Brown seaweed Padina gymnospora is a prominent natural wound-care product. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, v. 26, n. 6, p. 714-719, 2016. doi:org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.07.003

BOULANOUAR, B., ABDELAZIZ, G., AAZZA, S., GAGO, C., MIGUEL, M.G. Antioxidant activities of eight algerian plant extracts and two essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 46, 85-96, 2013. doi:org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.01.020

BUEGE, J.A., AUST, S.D. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology, v. 52, p. 302-310, 1978. doi: 10.1016/s0076-6879(78)52032-6

BUDILARTO, E.S., KAMAL-ELDIN, A. The supramolecular chemistry of lipid oxidation and antioxidation in bulk oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, v. 117, n. 8, p. 1095-1137, 2015. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201400200

BLUNT, J.W., CARROLL, A.R., COPP, B.R., DAVIS, R.A., KEYZERS, R.A., PRINSEP, M.R. Marine natural products. Previous review: Natural Product Reports, v. 35, n. 1, p. 8-53, 2018. doi:10.1039/c7np00052a

BRASIL. Ministério da Pesca e Aquicultura (2013). Boletim estatístico de pesca e aquicultura do Brasil 2011. Brasília: República Federativa do Brasil.

BRITO, S.S.S., SILVA, F., MALHEIRO, R., BAPTISTA, P., PEREIRA, J.A. Croton argyrophyllus Kunth and Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth: Phytochemical characterization and bioactive properties. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 113, p. 308-315, 2018. doi:org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.044

CHANDER, M.P., SACHITHANANDAM, V., VIJAYACHARI, P. Antimicrobial and haemolytic activity of seaweed Padina gymnospora from South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, v. 3, n. 6, p. 364-69, 2014.

CHOULITOUDI, E., BRAVOU, K., BIMPILAS, A., TSIRONI, T., TSIMOGIANNIS, D., TAOUKIS P., OREOPOULOU, V. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Satureja thymbra in gilthead seabream fillets edible coating. Food and Bioproducts Processing, v. 100 (B), p. 570-577, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2016.06.013

DUAN, X.J., ZHANG, W.W., LI, X.M., WANG, B.G. Evaluation of antioxidante property of extract and fractions obtained from a red algae Polysiphonia urceolata. Food Chemistry, v. 95, n. 1, p. 37-43, 2006. doi:org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.015

DUSSAULT, D., VU, K.D., VANSACH, T., HORGEN, F.D., LACROIX, H. Antimicrobial effects of marine algal extracts and cyanobacterial pure compounds against five foodborne pathogens, Food Chemistry, v. 199, p. 114-118, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.119

EL SHAFAY, S.M., SAMH, S.A., EL-SHEEKH, M.M. Antimicrobial activity of some seaweeds species from red sea, against multidrug resistant bacteria. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, v. 42, n. 1, p. 65-74, 2016. doi:org/10.1016/j.ejar.2015.11.006

FELLAH, F., LOUAILECHE, H., DEHBI-ZEBBOUDJ, A., TOUATI, N. Seasonal variations in the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activities of three selected species of seaweeds from Tiskerth islet, Bejaia, Algeria. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, v. 8, n. 12, p. 4451-4456, 2017. doi:10.26872/jmes.2017.8.12.470

LEYGONIE, C., BRITZ, T.J., HOFFMAN, L.C. Impact of freezing and thawing on the quality of meat: Review. Meat Science, v. 91, n. 2, p. 93-98, 2012. doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.013

LÓPEZ-DE-DICASTILLO, C., GÓMEZ-ESTACA, J., CATALÁ, R., GAVARA, R., HERNÁNDEZ-MUÑOZ, P. Active antioxidant packaging films: Development and effect on lipid stability of brined sardines. Food Chemistry, v. 131, n. 4, p. 1376-1384, 2012. doi:org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.002

LU, F., LIU, D., YE, X., WEI, Y., LIU, F. Alginate-calcium coating incorporating nisin and EDTA maintains the quality of fresh northern snakehead (Channa argus) fillets stored at 4oC. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture, v. 89, n. 5, p. 848-854, 2009. doi:org/10.1002/jsfa.3523

KUMAR, M., KUMARI, P., TRIVEDI, N., SHUKLA, M.K., GUPTA, V., REDDY, C.R.K., JHA, B. Minerals, PUFAs and antioxidante properties of some tropical seaweeds from saurashtra coast of India. Journal of Applied Phycology, v. 23, p.797­810, 2011. https://doi:10.1007/s10811-010-9578-7

MINIM V.P.R. Análise Sensorial: estudo com consumidores. Ed. UFV: Viçosa, Minas Gerais. 2006. 332 p.

OUSSALAH, M., CAILLET, S., SAUCIER, L., LACROIX, M. Antimicrobial effects of alginate based film containing essential oils for the preservation of whole beef muscle. Journal of Food Protection, v. 69, n. 10, p. 2364-2369, 2006. doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-69.10.2364

PALOMINO, J.C., MARTIN, A., CAMACHO, M., GUERRA, H., SWINGS, J., PORTAELS, F. Resazurin microtiter assay plate: simple and inexpensive method for detection of drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, v. 46, n. 8, p. 2720-2722, 2002. doi: 10.1128/aac.46.8.2720-2722.2002

PEINADO, M.S., GIRÓN, J., KOUTSIDIS, G., AMES, J.M. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of five different species of brown edible seaweeds. Food Research International, v. 66, p. 36-44, 2014. doi:org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.08.035

R CORE TEAM R. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2017. http://www.R-project.org.

RAYMUNDO, M.S., HORTA, P., FETT, R. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta) do litoral Catarinense (Brasil). Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêutica, v. 40, n. 4, p. 495-503, 2004. doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322004000400007

RE, R., PELLEGRINI, N., PROTEGGENTE, A., PANNALA, A., YANG, M., RICE-EVANS, C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolourization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, v. 26, n. 9-10, p. 1231–1237, 1999. doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849 (98)00315-3

SANTURIO, J.M., SANTURIO, D.F., POZZATTI, P., MORAES, C., FRANCHIN, P.R., ALVES, S.H. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella entérica de origem avícola. Ciência Rural, v. 37, n. 3, p. 803-808, 2007. doi:org/10.1590/S0103-84782007000300031

SANTOS, F.M.S. Utilização de quitosana no revestimento de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e na preparação de filmes incorporados com óleos essenciais / Fábio Marcel da Silva. – Recife: O Autor, 2014. 147 f.

SILVA, N., JUNQUEIRA, V.C.A., SILVEIRA, N.F.A., TANIWAKI, M.H., SANTOS, R.F.S., GOMES, R.A.R. Manual de métodos de análise microbiológica de alimentos e água. (4 ed). São Paulo: Varela, 2010. 624 p.

URIBE, E., VEGA-GÁLVEZ, A., HEREDIA, V., PASTÉN, A., DI SCALA, K. An edible red seaweed (Pyropia orbicularis): influence of vacuum drying on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and pigments. Journal of Applied Phycology, v. 30, n. 1, p. 673-683, 2018. doi:10.1007/s10811-017-1240-1

TENORIO-RODRIGUEZ, P.A., MURILLO-ÁLVAREZ, J.I., CAMPA-CORDOVA, A.I., ÂNGULO, C. Antioxidant screening and phenolic contente of etanol extracts of selected Baja California Penisula Macroalgae. Journal Food Science Technology, v. 54, n. 2, p. 422-429, 2017. doi:10.1007/s13197-016-2478-3

GUPTA, S., ABU-GHANNAM, N. Recent developments in the application of seaweeds or seaweed extracts as a means for enhancing the safety and quality attributes of foods. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technologies, v. 12, n. 4, p. 600-609, 2011. doi:org/10.1016/j.ifset.2011.07.004

OZOGUL, Y., DURMUS, M., BALICKI, E., OZOGUL, F., AYAS, D., YAZGAN, H. (2011). The effects of the combination of freezing and the use of natural antioxidant technology on the quality of forzen sardine fillets (Sardinella aurita). International Journal of Food Science Technology, 46, 236-242. doi: org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02476.x

MONTEIRO, M.L.G., MÁRSICO, E.T., DELIZA, R., CASTRO, V.S., MUTZ, Y.S., SOARES JÚNIOR, M.S., CALIARI, M., SANTOS, E.A., CONTE JUNIOR, C.A. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of pasta enriched with fish (Oreochromis niloticus) waste flour. LWT - Food Science Technology, v. 111, p. 751-758, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.05.075

VERMA, P., KUMAR, M., MISHRA, G., SAHOO, D. Multivariate analysis of fatty acid and biochemical constitutes of seaweeds to characterize their potential as bioresource for biofuel and fine chemicals. Bioresource Technology, v. 226, p. 132-144, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.044

REVERTER, M., BONTEMPS, N., LECCHINI, D., BANAIGS, B., SASAL, P. Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: Current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, v. 433, p. 50-61, 2014. doi:org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.048

RIVAS, L.R. Systematic review of the perciform fishes of the genus Centropomus. Copeia, v. 3, p. 579-611, 1986. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1444940

SANZ-PINTOS, N., PÉREZ-JIMÉNEZ, J., BUSCHMANN, A.H., VERGARA-SALINAS, J.R., PÉREZ-CORREA, J.R., SAURA-CALIXTO, F. Macromolecular antioxidants and dietary fiber in edible seaweeds. Journal Food Science, v. 82, n. 2, p. 289-295, 2017. doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13592

YOSUF, B., QADRIA, O.S., SRIVASTAVA, A.K. Recent developments in shelf-life extension of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by application of different edible coatings: A review. LWT - Food Science and Technology, v. 89, p. 98-209, 2018. doi:org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.10.051

DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n3-132


  • There are currently no refbacks.