Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) applied in different scenarios of nutrient recovery in the form of struvite: systematic review / Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida (ACV) aplicada em diferentes cenários de recuperação de nutrientes na forma de estruvita: revisão sistemática

Regiane Pereira Roque, Natanael Blanco Bená Filho, Ricardo Franci Gonçalves


The wastewater nutrients recovery in the form of struvite has been a trend due to the scarcity of phosphorus sources and the large energy expenditure for the production of nitrogen fertilizers. Another reason to replace the industrial fertilizers is directly related to the negative impacts on the environment, such as eutrophication of water bodies. Based on the aforementioned, the goal of the present paper is to perform a bibliometric analysis. Our work aims to review the main scientific articles published in the last five years based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool to the evaluation of the sustainability of the processes used to obtain struvite from different types of wastewater. In this way, a survey was carried out followed by a systematic literature analysis using the ProKnow - C method, since it is a descriptive research.  Based on the ProKnow - C method, data collection follows pre-established procedures, from the selection of the keywords to the filtering phase. These steps allow the selection of a quality bibliographic portfolio. The bibliometric analysis of data was performed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and statistical charts. Few publications were found on the subject. The results indicate that the environmental aspects are considered favorable to nutrient recovery. However, the need to formulate standardized guidelines to guarantee the quality to the application of LCA methodology in studies of systems for nutrient recovery it is evident.


Life Cycle Assessment, Sustainability, Nutrient recovery, Struvite.

Full Text:



ADAMSSON, M.; BAN, Zs.; DAVE, G. Sustainable utilization of human urine in urban areas – practical experiences. In: 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ECOLOGICAL SANITATION, Lübeck, Germany, p. 643-650, 2003.

AFONSO, M. H. F.; SOUZA de, J. V.; ENSSLIN, S. R.; ENSSLIN, L. Como construir conhecimento sobre o tema de pesquisa? Aplicação do processo ProKnow-C na busca de literatura sobre avaliação do desenvolvimento sustentável. RGSA – Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental, v. 5, p. 47-62, 2011.

BAITZ, M.; ALBRECHT, S.; BRAUNER, E.; BROADBENT, C.; CASTELLAN, G.; CONRATH, P.; FAVA, J.; FINKBEINER, M.; FISCHER, M.; PALMER, P. F.; KRINKE, S.; LEROY, C.; LOEBEL, O.; MCKEOWN, P.; MERSIOWSKY, I.; MOGINGER, B.; PFAADT, M.; REBITZER, G.; ROTHER, E.; RUHLAND, K.; SCHANSSEMA, A.; TIKANA, L. LCA’s theory and practice: like ebony and ivory living in perfect harmony?. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, v. 18, p.5-13, 2012.

BISINELLA DE FARIA, A. B.; SPÉRANDIO, M.; AHMADI, A.; TIRUTA-BARNA, L. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA). Water Research, v.84, p. 99-111, 2015.

BRADFORD-HARTKE, Z.; LANE, J.; LANT, P.; LESLIE, G. Environmental Benefits and Burdens of Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Wastewater. Environmental Science and Technology, v. 143, p. 288-302, 2015.

CLAUDINO, E. S.; TALAMINI, E. Análise do Ciclo de Vida (ACV) aplicada ao agronegócio - Uma revisão de literatura. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v. 17, 2013.

ENSSLIN, L.; ENSSLIN, S. R.; LACERDA, R. T. O.; TASCA, J. E. Processo de Seleção de Portfólio Bibliográfico. Processo técnico com patente de registro pendente junto ao INPI. Brasil, 2010.

ENSSLIN, L.; ENSSLIN, S. R.; PACHECO, G. C. Um Estudo Sobre Segurança em Estádios de Futebol Baseado na Análise da Literatura Internacional. Perspectivas em Ciências da Informação, v. 17, p.71-91, 2012.

FERENHOF, H. A.; VIGNOCHI, L.; SELIG, P. M.; LEZANA, A. G. R.; CAMPOS, L. M. S. Environmental management systems in small and medium-sized enterprises: an analysis and systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, v.74, p.44-53, 2014.

FINNVEDEN, G.; MOBERG, Å. Environmental systems analysis tools – an overview. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 13, n. 12, p.1165-1173, 2005.

IGOS, E.; BESSON, M.; NAVARRETE GUTIÉRREZ, T.; BISINELLA DE FARIA, A. B.; BENETTO, E.; BARNA, L.; AHMADI, A.; SPÉRANDIO, M. Assessment of environmental impacts and operational costs of the implementation of an innovative source-separated urine treatment. Water Research, v. 126, p. 50-59, 2017.

ISHII, S. K. L.; BOYER, T. H. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management. Water Research, v. 79, p.88-103, 2015.

ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation), 2006. ISO 14040: Environmental Management e Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Framework. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.

ISO, 2006. ISO 14044: Environmental Managementd Life Cycle Assessmentd Requirements and Guidelines. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.

KJERSTADIUS, H., BERNSTAD SARAIVA, A., SPÅNGBERG, J., DAVIDSSON, Å. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 197, p.250-257, 2017.

LANDRY, K. A.; BOYER, T. H. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal. Water Research, v. 105, p. 487-495, 2016.

LINDERHOLM, K.; TILLMAN, A.; MATTSSON, J. E. Life cycle assessment of phosphorus alternatives for Swedish agriculture. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, v. 66, p.27-39, 2012.

MATTHEWS, H. S.; HENDRICKSON, C. T.; MATTHEWS, D. H.. Life Cycle Assessment: Quantitative approaches for decisions that matter. Pittisburg, Carnie Mellon University, 2015, 353 p.

MAURER, M.; SCHWEGLER, P. E.; LARSEN, T. A. Nutrients in urine: Energetic aspects of removal and recovery. Water Science and Technology, v. 48, p.37-46, 2003.

MBAYA, A. M. K.; DAI, J.; CHEN, G. H. Potential benefits and environmental life cycle assessment of equipping buildings in dense cities for struvite production from source-separated human urine. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 143, p.288-302, 2016.

PEDIZZI, C.; NOYA, I.; SARLI, J.; GONZÁLEZ-GARCÍA, S.; LEMA, J. M.; MOREIRA, M. T.; CARBALLA, M. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure. Waste Management, v. 77, p. 276-286, 2018.

PINHEIRO, C. M. P.; BARTH, M. Produção científica na base de dados scopus: uma análise sobre a indústria criativa. Pesquisa Brasileira em Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia, v. 9, p. 48-61, 2014.

REINA, D. R. M.; ENSSLIN, S. R.; ENSSLIN, L.; REINA, D. Seleção e análise do perfil da produção científica sobre o tema seleção de projetos. REGE, v. 21, p. 3-25, 2014.

STYLES, D.; ADAMS, P., THELIN; G., VANEECKHAUTE, C.; CHADWICK, D. E.; WITHERS, P. J. A. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofertilizer Production and Use Compared with Conventional Liquid Digestate Management. Environmental Science & Technology, v. 52, p. 7468−7476, 2018.

THIBODEAU, C.; MONETTE, F.; GLAUS, M. Comparison of development scenarios of a black water source-separation sanitation system using life cycle assessment and environmental life cycle costing. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, v. 92, p.38-54, 2014.

VIEGAS, C. V.; BOND, A. J.; VAZ, C. R.; BORCHARDT, M.; PEREIRA, G. M.; SELIG, P. M.; VARVAKIS, G. Critical attributes of Sustainability in Higher Education: a categorisation from literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 126, p.260-276, 2016.

WILLERS, C. D.; RODRIGUES, L. B; SILVA, C. A. Avaliação do ciclo no Brasil: uma investigação nas principais bases científicas nacionais. Produção (São Paulo), v. 23, p. 436-447, 2013.

ZHOU, K.; REMY, C.; KABBE, C.; BARJENBRUCH, M. Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of phosphorus recovery with different generations of the AirPrex®systems. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, p. 1-14, 2018.



  • There are currently no refbacks.