Experimental technology-enhanced voting system in Nigeria: a stumbling block or stepping stone? / Sistema de votação experimental com tecnologia avançada na Nigéria: uma pedra de tropeço ou trampolim?

Mike Omilusi

Abstract


During the 2015 general elections, Nigeria sought a technology solution that could guarantee the concept of ‘one citizen, one vote’ mandate and establish reliable and accurate voting system. The experiment has been subjected to different analyses among political observers in the country. This essay is one of such attempts but with a distinct task of ascertaining whether the ‘e-voting’ experiment was really a stepping stone or a stumbling block for electoral democracy in the country. This theoretical diagnosis is done by weighting its weaknesses and strengths and the need for improvement.


Keywords


e-Voting, Experiment, Technology, Democracy, Election

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abiola-Oseni, Njumoke (2015) 2015: Is Nigeria ready for Electronic Voting? Available at: http://trisatcom.net/blog/2015-is-nigeria-ready-for-electronic-voting/

ACE Electoral Knowledge Network (2015) Elections and Technology, Available at: http://aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/et/onePage

Adida, Ben (2008) Helios: Web-Based Open-Audit Voting, in Proceedings of the 17th USENIX Security Symposium. USENIX Association, 335–348

Adida, Ben, Olivier De Marneffe, Olivier Pereira, and Jean-Jacques Quisquater (2009) Electing a university president using open-audit voting: Analysis of real-world use of Helios, in Proceedings of the Electronic Voting Technology Workshop/Workshop on Trustworthy Elections (EVT/WOTE). USENIX Association

Agbu, Osita (2015) Unbridled Election Rigging and the Use of Technology: The Smart Card Reader as the ‘Joker’ in Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Election, Available at: http://www.inecnigeria.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Conference-Paper-by-Osita-Agbu.pdf

Ahmad, Sabo et al (2015) Issues and Challenges of Transition to e-Voting Technology in Nigeria, Public Policy and Administration Research, Vol.5, No.4, 2015

Ajiboye, Adeleke et al (2013) Modeling and Evaluation of E-Voting System for a Sustainable Credible Election, International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) Volume 5– No.3, February 2013

Ake, C., (2000) The Feasibility of Politics in Africa, Dakar: CODERSRIA

Akintunde, Jide (2015) 10 Things to Note about Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Election, Available at: http://myndff.org/policy-dialogue/10-things-to-note-about-nigerias-2015-presidential-election/

Akpotor, A.S (2015) Legal Framework for Elections in Nigeria: A Study of the 2015 General Elections, Available at: http://www.inecnigeria.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Conference-Paper-by-Sunny-Akpotor.pdf

Ayo, C.K Adebiyi, A. A and Sofoluwe, A.B (2012) “E-Voting Implementation in Nigeria: The Success Factors” in Salawu, R.I (eds.) Curbing Political Violence in Nigeria: The Role of Security Profession, Available at: http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/873/#.Vrg2vFgrLIV

Blanc, J. (2007). Challenging the Norms and Standards of Election Administration: Electronic Voting [electronic version]. IFES, 11 – 19

CDD Report (2015) Matters Arising from Voting Phase of Nigeria 2015 Presidential, National Assembly Elections, Premium Times, March 29

Durotoye, Adeolu (2015) Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Election: Between Democratic Consolidation and Change, European Scientific Journal, July 2015 edition vol.11, No.19

Duruji, Moses; Ayo, Charles; Oni, Samuel; Oni, Aderonke (2015) Making a Case for e-Voting in Nigeria, European Conference on e-Government, 100-106, Kidmore End: Academic Conferences International Limited (Jun 2015)

Encyclopaedia (2015) Elections and Technology

9.2. E-Politics (2012) Advantages and disadvantages of an electronic voting system, Available At: http://csc1102-epolitics.blogspot.com.mt/2012/01/advantages-and-disadvantages-of.html

ESRI (2007) Nigerian Voting System Modernized, Available at: http://www.esri.com/news/arcnews/summer07articles/nigerian-voting.html

Ezegwu, C. (2006) Problems and Prospects of Adopting Electronic Voting System in Nigeria, Conference of the Nigerian Political Science Association (NPSA) South East Chapter, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

Fagbohun, Olanrewaju (2013) Nigeria’s Democracy and The Crisis of Political Instability: An Audit of The Electoral System, Being text of Paper Delivered at the June 12 Anniversary Lecture Organized by the Political and Legislative Powers Bureau of Lagos State Government in conjunction with the June 12 Coalition, on 12th June 2013

Freedom House (2015) 5 Things to Know about the Nigerian Elections, March 25, Available at: https://freedomhouse.org/blog/5-things-know-about-nigerian-elections

Golden, M., Kramon, E. and Ofosu, G. (2014) Electoral fraud and biometric identification machine failure in a competitive democracy, Retrieved from: http://golden.polisci.ucla.edu/workinprogress/golden-kramon-ofosu.pdf

Ibrahim, Jibrin (2007), “Nigeria's 2007 Elections: The Fitful Path to Democratic Citizenship”, Special Report, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace

Ibrahim, Jibrin and Garuba, Dauda (2009) “Institutional Weaknesses and Electoral Mismanagement: INEC and the Direct Capture of People's Mandate”, in Ibrahim and Ibeanu (eds.) Direct Capture the 2007 Nigerian Elections and Subversion of Popular Sovereignty, Centre for Democracy and Development

IDEA (2011) Introducing Electronic Voting: Essential Considerations, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), Policy Paper December 2011

INEC (2012) Report of The Registration and Election Review Committee (RERC), Nigeria, Eddy Asae Nig. Press

International IDEA (2001) Democracy in Nigeria: Continuing Dialogue(s) for Nation-building, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

IPCR (2013) Peace and Security as Imperatives for National Development, Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution

Ishaq, Salimonu (2014) The Determinants of Electronic Voting Adoption: Independent National Electoral Commission of Nigeria Employees’ Perspective, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Submitted to the Universiti Utara Malaysia

Ishaq, Salimonu et al (2012) Adoption of E-Voting Systems: A Case Study of Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), Nigeria: A Preliminary Study, Knowledge Management International Conference (KMICe) 2012, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 4 – 6 July 2012

Ishaq, Salimonu et al (2012) Adoption of E-Voting Systems: A case study of Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), Nigeria: A Preliminary Study, Knowledge Management International Conference (KMICe) 2012, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 4 – 6 July 2012

Iwu, M. M. (2008): “Electronic Voting and the Future of the electoral system in Nigeria” The Nigerian Electoral Journal, 2(1) 1-29

Kohno, Tadayoshi, Adam Stubblefield, Aviel D Rubin, and Dan S Wallach (2004) Analysis of an electronic voting system, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, IEEE, 27–40

Majekodunmi, A. (2013) E-democracy as a panacea for enhanced civic participation in Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research in IT and Engineering, 2(6), 16–26. Retrieved from http://garph.co.uk/IJARIE/June2013/3.pdf

Mato, Kabir (2015) Global Best Practices in Digital Electoral Process: The Effects and Benefits of e-Electoral Process for A Developing Country(NIGERIA), Paper for Presentation at e-Nigeria Conference 2015 Organised by The National Information Technology Development Agency (Nitda) at The International Conference Center, Abuja, 17th- 19th November, 2015

Mercuri, R. ( 2010) Electronic Voting, Retrieved from http://www.notablesoftware.com.

Merloe, Patrick (2008) Promoting Legal Frameworks for Democratic Elections: An NDI Guide for Developing Election Laws and Law Commentaries, National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) Available at: https://www.ndi.org/files/2404_ww_elect_legalframeworks_093008.pdf

Okoye, Festus (2010) Nigeria: Civil Society Groups and Electronic Voting Systems, the Challenges, Vanguard, January 14

Omolaye, P.O et al (2015) Systemic Evaluation of Semi-Electronic Voting System Adopted in Nigeria 2015 General Elections, American Journal of Information Systems, 2015, Vol 3 No 1, 15-21

O'Neal, Brian (1993) Electoral Systems, Canada, Library of Parliament, Research Branch

Orji, Nkwachukwu and Iwuamadi, Kelechi (2015) Conflict Mitigation in Nigeria’s 2015 Elections: Lessons in Democratic Development, Available at: http://www.inecnigeria.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Conference-Paper-by-Kelechi-Iwuamadi.pdf

Premium Times (2015) Editorial: Nigeria’s 2015 Historic Presidential Election and the Tasks Ahead, April 2

Robert A. Pastor (1999) The Role of Electoral Administration in Democratic Transitions: Implications for Policy and Research, Democratization, Vol.6, No.4, Winter 1999. pp.1-2

Sampigethaya, Krishna and Poovendran, Radha (2006) A Framework and Taxonomy for Comparison of Electronic Voting Schemes, Computers & Security 25 (2006) 137–153

Smith, R.G (2001) The Risks and Benefits of Electronic Voting, A paper presented at the 15th Australian Forum - Melbourne, 3 March 2001

Sweeney, William (2015) Nigeria’s 2015 Elections: A Critical Vote for Democracy in Africa, Available At:http://www.ifes.org/news/nigerias-2015-elections-critical-vote-democracy-africa

The Citizen (2013) INEC and the e-Voting Challenge, September 6

The Nation (2016) INEC Gets New Technology to Collate, Transmit Results, January 24

ThisDay (2015) “INEC and Smart Card Readers”, March 17, 2015, Retrieved from www.http://thisday.com/articles/inec-and-smart-card-readers/204251,

Umonbong, O (2006) The Voting System in Nigeria, Paper Presented at the AEA Seminar Held in Blackpool, England, February 2006

UNECA (2013) African Governance Report III: Elections and the Management of Diversity, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press

Yard, Michael (2014) “Technology and Electoral Violence”, in Elections Worth Dying for? A Selection of Case Studies from Africa, International Foundation for Electoral Systems


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.