Empatia no cotidiano do curso de graduação de medicina a partir de uma revisão integrativa / Empathy in the everyday of the medicine graduation course from a comprehensive review

Leonardo Hideki Ikeda, Marcio Roberto de Cássio Barbosa, Raquel Aparecida de Oliveira, Mônica Oliveira Bernardo

Abstract


A empatia tem sido descrita no sucesso da relação médico paciente, em melhores desfechos clínicos e sucesso do médico no mercado de trabalho, este estudo objetivou sintetizar o conhecimento disponível na literatura científica sobre empatia na formação médica, e, entender a atual situação do tema, correlacionando a aquisição desse conhecimento na graduação médica. Tratou-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura científica nacional e internacional. Foram incluídos todos os estudos identificados na literatura nos últimos sete anos, sem filtro de idioma, na base PubMED. Os artigos foram selecionados em três fases: 1) leitura de títulos, selecionando artigos referentes ao assunto pesquisado (1196 artigos, descartaram-se 1036). 2) leitura dos resumos das 160 publicações escolhidas na primeira fase, excluindo: a) artigos de pesquisas não originais (revisão); b) artigos abordando médicos residentes ou estudantes de enfermagem; c) empatia no aluno de medicina relacionada à “burnout” ou depressão. 3) leitura das 25 publicações selecionadas na segunda fase. Reuniu-se pesquisas de 16 países, predominando estudos utilizando Escala Jefferson de Empatia (JSPE-S), outros avaliadores foram usados, paralelamente ou não a JSPE-S. Os artigos buscavam mensurar o nível empático dos estudantes de medicina, maior parte, com análises do tipo transversal ou longitudinal, e sua associação relacionada ao gênero, diferenças culturais, ano na graduação, programa curricular e área optada após formação. A maioria dos estudos mostrou diminuição da empatia durante a graduação. Contrapondo, em sete estudos, escores empáticos mantiveram-se estáveis, não variando entre fases pré clínicas e clínicas. Três estudos defendiam intervenção curricular aprimorando o conteúdo prático para manter ou elevar níveis de empatia dos estudantes. Estudos corroboram com diminuição da empatia na formação médica. Apesar da evidência de declínio, a empatia pode ser preservada na graduação, para tal, conclui-se a necessidade do aperfeiçoamento de empatia com conteúdo prático durante todo o processo deformação.


Keywords


Empatia; Educação Médica; Graduação.

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