Relação entre periodontite, doenças articulares e tabagismo em pacientes que irão se submeter a implantes dentários / Relationship between periodontitis, joint diseases and smoking in patients who will undergo dental implants

Juliana Barbosa de Faria, Taíssa Cássia de Souza Furtado, Bárbara Bellocchio Bertoldo, Eleonora de Paula Amaral, Camilla Beatriz da Silva, Sanivia Aparecida de Lima Pereira

Abstract


A periodontite resulta na perda de tecido conjuntivo e de suporte dos ossos e é a principal causa da perda de dentes em adultos. O tabagismo é considerado o principal fator de risco associado à doença periodontal crônica, que também pode estar associada com doenças articulares. O objetivo do presente estudo foi relacionar doença periodontal com doenças articulares e tabagismo em pacientes que irão ser submetidos a implantes dentários. O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa em Humanos da Universidade de Uberaba (Uniube) pelo CAAE: 64947717.0.0000.5145. Os pacientes foram selecionados no período de dezembro de 2017 a setembro de 2018 no Curso de Especialização em Implantodontia, na Policlínica Getúlio Vargas da Universidade de Uberaba. Foram avaliados 83 pacientes sendo divididos em dois grupos: Pacientes com periodontite (n=24) e pacientes sem periodontite (n=59). Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste exato de Fisher. Dos 24 pacientes com periodontite, 66,67% eram mulheres, 87,5% eram brancos, 33,33% possuíam doenças articulares e 29,17% eram tabagistas. Dos 59 pacientes sem periodontite 74,58% eram mulheres, 93,22% eram brancos, 11,86% possuíam doenças articulares e 18,64% eram tabagistas. Sabe-se que nas doenças articulares, no tabagismo e na periodontite existe desregulação imunológica com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em grande quantidade, o que estaria contribuindo para a destruição tecidual tanto no periodonto como nas articulações, principalmente nos pacientes tabagistas. Além disso sabe-se que na artrite há exposição crônica a lipopolissacarídeos de bactérias patogênicas do periodonto, o que poderia provocar ou intensificar doenças articulares. A grande porcentagem de pacientes com doenças articulares e de tabagistas no grupo de pacientes com periodontite que irão se submeter a implantes dentários, justificaria a necessidade de medidas preventivas do agravamento da resposta inflamatória a fim de prevenir doenças peri-implantares com consequente perda dos implantes.


Keywords


Implantes Dentários; Periodontite; Tabagismo.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n1-008

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