Phenomenological reflections of Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein: establishing dialogues with the bioethical paradigm and the teachers’ health promotion / Reflexões fenomenológicas de Edmund Husserl e Edith Stein: estabelecendo diálogos com o paradigma bioético e a promoção da saúde docente

Ivaní Nadir Carlotto, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis

Abstract


Background: The Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein perspective phenomenology seek to describe the human being through an analysis that examines his consciousness and his lived experiences, concluding that the human subject is formed by body, psyche and spirit. The health promotion (HP) and bioethics, in turn, are built on this same perspective since they interpret the human person as a being in constant development and must be respected in their integrity and their lived experiences. Objective: To present and identify the interface between the phenomenological approach proposed by Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein as a substrate for the development of bioethical perspectives in HP of professors in higher education (HE). The main argument of this research is to highlight the intimate relationship between this theoretical framework and the HP, under the justification that, when adopting an eco-salutogenic concept of health, individuals are encouraged to understand their own experiences, reflecting and perpetrating the bioethical principles in their everyday situations. Materials and Methods:  PhD research with exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: University professors from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, random sample, non-probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 persons. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre (HCPA), Brazil, Ethics Committee of the University Fernando Pessoa (UFP), Porto, Portugal, receiving the CAAE approval number 55066616.8.0000.5327, Plataforma Brasil, Brazil. Results: Production of 6 principal components through factorial analysis categorized and interpreted by qualitative content analysis and MAXQDA® software. Conclusions: Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. The Husserlian phenomenology paradigm, bioethical principles and HP models, aim to build qualified actions in health, to stimulate and promote well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with outstanding conceptual clarity that distinguishes them.

 


Keywords


Bioethics; Edith Stein& Edmund Husserl; Health Promotion; Phenomenology; Teachers.

References


Azetsop, J. (2011). New directions in African bioethics: ways of including public health concerns in the bioethics agenda. Development World of Bioethics 11: 4-15. Doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8847.2009.00271. x

Bardin, L. (2009). Análise de conteúdo [Content analysis]. Lisboa:Edições 70.

Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (1979). The principles of biomedical ethics, 1st ed. New York: Oxford.

Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (1983). The principles of biomedical ethics, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford.

Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (1994). The principles of biomedical ethics, 4th ed. New York: Oxford.

Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (2001). The principles of biomedical ethics, 5th ed. New York: Oxford.

Beauchamp, T. L. and Childress, J. F. (2002). The principles of biomedical ethics, 7th ed. New York: Oxford.

Bello, A. A. (2006). Introdução à Fenomenologia [Introduction to Phenomenology]. Bauru, SP: Edusc.

Belo, A. A. (2008). Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein: the question of the human subject. American Catholic PhilosophicalQuarterly. Doi: 10.5840/acpq200882124

Bello, A. A. (2018). Edith Stein: a paixão pela verdade [Edith Stein: the passion for truth]. Curitiba: Juruá.

Bello, A. A. (2019). O sentido das coisas: por um realismo fenomenológico [The meaningofthings: by a phenomenologicalrealism]. São Paulo: Paulus.

Carlotto, I. N. and Dinis, M. A. P. (2017). Bioética e Promoção da Saúde Docente na Educação Superior: Uma Interface Necessária [Bioethicsandthe Health PromotionofTeachers inuniversity: A Necessary Interface]. Revista Saber & Educar 23: 168 - 179.

Carlotto, I. N. and Dinis, M. A. P. (2018a). Bioética e Cuidado de Enfermagemnapromoção da saúde de docentesnaeducação superior [Bioethics and Nursing Care in the health promotion of teachers in the university]. In 12th International Seminaron Nursing Research Proceedings. Paper presented at 12th International Seminar on Nursing Research, Porto/Portugal, 03-04 May 2018. ISBN 978-989-97041-8-3. Available online http://www.saude.porto.ucp.pt/isnr?msite=17

Carlotto, I. N and Dinis, M. A P. (2018b). Bioethics, Health Promotion and Sustainability: Interfaces in Higher Education. BMC Health Services Research, 18(2): 68 - 69.

Carlotto, I. N. and Dinis, M. A. P. (2019a). Tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TICs) na promoção da saúde: considerações bioéticas [Informationand Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthpromotion: bioethicalconsiderations]. Revista Saber &Educar25. Doi: 10.17346/se.vol24.306. In press.

Carlotto, I. N. and Dinis, M. A. P. (2019b). Building bridges between bioethics and ecological models of health promotion in higher education. Nuevasaportaciones sociológicas: género, psicología y sociedad. ColecciónHerramientas universitárias, Editorial GEDISA. Madri, Espanha. ISBN 978-84-17690-16-8 y Depósito legal B- 28043-2018. In press.

Cescon, E. (2016). Ética e subjetividade [Ethicsandsubjectivity]. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes.

Dooris, M. (2006). Health promoting settings: future directions. Promotion & education 13: 4-6, 50-52, 68-70.

Dooris, M., Doherty, S. and Orme, J. (2017). The application of salutogenesis in universities. In The Handbook of Salutogenesis. England: Springer, pp.237-245.

Doran, K., Resnick, B., Kim, N., Lynn, D. and McCormick, T. (2017). Applying the Social Ecological Model and Theory of Self-Efficacy in the Worksite Heart Health Improvement Project-PLUS. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 31: 8-27. Doi: 10.1891/1541-6577.31.1.8

Duarte-Cuervo, C. Y. (2015). The understanding and implementation of health promotion at the university in Colombia. Revista de Salud Publica (Bogota) 17: 899-911. Doi: 10.15446/rsap. v17n6.44713

García, J. J. (2013). Principialistic and personalistic bioethics. Some perspectives. Cuadernos de Bioética 24: 67-76.

Garrafa, V. (2005). Inclusão social no contexto político da bioética. RevistaBrasileira de Bioética1: 122-132.

Gutland, C. (2018). Husserlian Phenomenology as a Kind of Introspection. Theoretical and philosophical Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00896

Haney, K. M. (1994). Empathy and ethics. University of Houston-Downtown. Consulted in 02/04/2018,Available in https://www.pdcnet.org/8525737F005880C7/file/FBB0B9CDBD5EB0A8852574780066A9B9/$FILE/swphilreview_1994_0010_0001_0063_0071.pdf

Hellegers, A., and Ramsey, P. (1973). The patient as person. In The Explorations in medical ethics. Connecticut: New Haven.

Jonsen, A. R. and Toulmin, S. (1988). The abuse of casuistry. A history of moral reasoning. Los Angeles: Press.

Junges, J. R. (2006). Bioética: hermenêutica e casuística [Bioethics: hermeneuticsandcasuistry]. São Paulo: Loyola.

Junges, J. R. (2014). Bioética sanitarista: desafios éticos da saúde coletiva [Healthbioethics: ethicalchallengesofcollectivehealth]. São Paulo: Loyola.

Mandal, J., Ponnambath, D. K. and Parija, S. C. (2017). Bioethics: A brief review. Tropical Parasitology 7: 5-7. Doi: 10.4103/tp.TP_4_17

Matisonn, H. (2017). Bioethics: A Philosophical Introduction. In The Book Review. Cambridge: Polity Press.

MAXQDA. (2018). The art of data analysis. Available online https://www.maxqda.com/?utm_expid=.HYL6SEWUQaqlYvgzfnwOzA.0&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.maxqda.com%2Fwhat-is-maxqda (accessed on 16 August 2018).

Oliveira, R. A. (2012). Bioética [Bioethics]. Revista Brasileira de Psicanálise 46: 105-117.

PAHO. Pan American Health Organization. (2012). Regional program on bioethics. Available online http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5582%3A2011-regional-program-on-bioeth-ics&catid=3347%3Abioethics&Itemid=4124〈=es (accessed on 05 February 2017).

Parker, E., Gould, T. and Fleming, M. (2007). Ethics in health promotion-reflections in practice. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 18: 69-72.

Potter, V. R. (1971). Bioethics, bridge to the future. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Prodanov, C.C. (2013). Metodologia do trabalho científico: métodos e técnicas da pesquisa e do trabalho acadêmico [Methodologyofscientificwork: methodsandtechniquesofresearchandacademicwork]. 2nd ed. Novo Hamburgo: Feevale.

R Development Core Team. (2015). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. Available online https://www.gbif.org/tool/81287/r-a-language-and-environment-for-statistical-computing (accessed on 16 July 2017).

Real de Asúa, D. and Herreros, B. (2016). Why dedicate yourself to bioethics? Seven reasons to get you started. RevistaClínica Española 216: 271-275. Doi: 10.1016/j.rce.2015.12.003

Santana, J. P. and Garrafa, V. (2013). Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective. Ciência e Saúde coletiva 18: 129-137. Doi: 10.1590/S1413-1232013000100014

Sanz, E. J. (2016). Day todaybioethics: Beyondthe experts. Revista Clínica Española216: 255-256. Doi: 10.1016/j.rce.2016.03.004

Siqueira-Batista, R., Gomes, A. P., Motta, L. C. S., Rennó, L., Lopes, T. C., Miyadahira, R., Vidal, S. V. and Cotta, R. M. M. (2015). (Bio)ética e Estratégia Saúde da Família: mapeando problemas [(Bio) Ethicsand Family Health Strategy: mappingproblems]. Saúde e Sociedade 24: 02-16. Doi: 10.1590/S0104-12902015000100009

Snead, O. C. (2009). Bioethics and self-governance: the lessons of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34: 204-222. Doi:10.1093/jmp/jhp024

Tsouros, A., Dowding, G., Thompson, J., Dooris, M. & WHO (World Health Organization). Regional Office for Europe. (1998)‎. Health promoting universities: concept, experience and framework for. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Available online http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108095

U. S. Government. (1978). The Belmont Report: Ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects. Washington: DHEW Publications.

UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2005). Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Available online http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001461/146180por.pdf (accessed on 31 October 2017).

WHO. World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Geneva.

Zoboli, E. L. C. P. (2010). Relación clínica y problemas éticos enatención primaria, São Paulo, Brasil. Atención Primaria 42: 406-412. Doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2010.01




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv2n4-071

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.